Fight Off Diabetes Mellitus with Right Knowledge and Food!

Nitu Pal reveals all that you need to know about Diabetes – an epidemic lifestyle and hereditary disease bothering people worldwide. Know how you can fight it off successfully anywhere with right foods and home remedies. This article is a wholesome comprehensive data to arm you with all the needed information about diabetes!

Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by the decreased ability or complete inability of the tissues to utilise carbohydrates, accompanied by changes in the metabolism of fat, protein, water and electrolytes.

This order is due to a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of the hormone insulin.

Types of Diabetes

There are a few different types of diabetes:

Type 1 or Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

(IDDM): It usually occurs before the age of 40 yrs. It occurs when your immune system, the body's system for fighting infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. The patients are sensitive to insulin, unstable, difficult to manage and fluctuate from diabetic coma on one hand to hypoglycemia on the other. The patients usually are obese and may even be wasted and underweight.

Type 2 or Non- Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)

This type usually occurs in middle life or beyond the age of 40 years, although it may also occur in the younger age group. The patients are most often obese. It occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.

Majority of the patients improve with weight loss and are maintained on diet therapy, which may sometimes be assisted by an oral hypoglycemic drug.

Type 3 Malnutrition Related Diabetes Mellitus (MRDM)

This is also of 2 types:-

* Fibro Calculous Pancreatic Diabetes (FCPD):- This is due to an onset of pancreatic disease during childhood, with peak onset of symptoms in the age of 15-35 years.

*PDDM:- It occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.

Type 4 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)

It is diagnosed when glucose intolerance is detected for the first time during pregnancy. It doesn't apply to women known to be diabetic before conception.

Symptoms of Diabetes

  • Extreme hunger
  • Increased thirst
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurry vision
  • Tiredness
  • It may also result in mood changes
  • Decreased ability to wound healing

It may also cause recurring infections. This is because elevated glucose levels make it harder for the body to heal.

Most women with Gestational Diabetes don’t have any symptoms. The condition is often detected during a routine blood sugar test or oral glucose tolerance test that is usually performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of gestation.

In rare cases, a woman with gestational diabetes will also experience increased thirst or urination.

Diabetes Risk Factors

Certain factors increase your risk for diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

You’re more likely to get type 1 diabetes if you’re a child or teenager, you have a parent or sibling with the condition, or you carry certain genes that are linked to the disease.

Type 2 diabetes

Your risk for type 2 diabetes increases if you:

  • are overweight
  • are age 45 or older
  • have a parent or sibling with the condition
  • aren’t physically active
  • have had gestational diabetes
  • have pre-diabetes
  • have high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or high triglycerides.

Gestational diabetes

Your risk for gestational diabetes increases if you:

  • are overweight
  • are over age 25
  • had gestational diabetes during a past pregnancy
  • have given birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
  • have a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Diabetes Complications

High blood sugar damages organs and tissues throughout your body. The higher your blood sugar is and the longer you live with it, the greater your risk for complications.

Complications associated with diabetes include:

  • Heart disease, Heart attack, and stroke
  • Neuropathy: There is nerve damage and diminished transmission of nerve impulses.
  • Foot problems can easily occur from decreased function of nerves and lowered resistance to infections due to defective blood circulation to and from the feet.
  • Nephropathy:- Functional changes occur in the nephrones of the kidney. The changes lead to proteinuria with increasing renal failure and uraemia if diabetes is uncontrolled.
  • Retinopathy and Vision loss: The changes interfere with vision and may ultimately lead to blindness.
  • Hearing loss
  • Foot damage such as infections and sores   that don’t heal
  • Skin conditions such as bacterial and fungal infections
  • Depression
  • Dementia
  • Gestational diabetes

Uncontrolled gestational diabetes can lead to problems that affect both the mother and baby.Complications affecting the baby can include:

  • Premature birth
  • Higher-than-normal weight at birth
  • Increased risk for type 2 diabetes later in life
  • low blood sugar
  • jaundice
  • stillbirth

The mother can develop complications such as high blood pressure (preeclampsia) or type 2 diabetes. She may also require cesarean delivery, commonly referred to as a C-section.

The bottom line

Diabetes can lead to serious medical complications, but we can manage the condition with medications and a healthy lifestyle.

Diabetes Diagnosis

Anyone who has symptoms of diabetes or is at risk for the disease should be tested. Women are routinely tested for gestational diabetes during their second or third trimesters of pregnancy.

Blood glucose levels

A random blood glucose level exceeding 200 mg/dl while a fasting blood glucose level of more than 140 mg/dl is suggestive of Diabetes.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

It determines the body's ability to utilise a known amount of carbohydrates.

It is conducted in the morning on a patient who fasts overnight after 3 daya or more on a diet containing atleast 150g carbohydrates daily and with normal activity.

Glycosylated Haemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c)

This is a blood test for screening and monitoring of diabetes. A high concentration of glycohaemoglobin indicates a high level of glucose over the life of the cell.

To diagnose gestational diabetes, your doctor will test your blood sugar levels between the 24thand 28th weeks of your pregnancy.

Diabetes and Diet Management

Diet therapy has a major important role to play in realising these aims. Healthy eating is a central part of managing diabetes. In some cases, changing your diet may be enough to control the disease.

Your blood sugar level rises or falls based on the types of foods you eat. Starchy or sugary foods make blood sugar levels rise rapidly. Protein and fat cause more gradual increases.

Eating the right types of foods can both control your blood sugar and help you lose any excess weight.

In order to keep your blood sugar levels steady, try to eat small meals throughout the day. Emphasize healthy foods such as:

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Lean protein such as poultry and fish
  • Healthy fats such as olive oil and nuts.

Some best foods to Control Diabetes:

Here are some best foods for diabetics, both type 1 and type 2.

1. Fatty Fish

Fatty fish is one of the healthiest foods on the planet. Salmon, sardines, herring, anchovies and mackerel are great sources of the omega-3 fatty acid.

Getting enough of these fats on a regular basis is especially important for diabetics, who have an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

Men and women who consumed fatty fish 5–7 days per week for 8 weeks had significant reductions in triglycerides.

BOTTOM LINE: Fatty fish contain omega-3 fats that reduce inflammation and other risk factors for heart disease and stroke.

2. Green leafy vegetables

Green leafy vegetables are extremely nutritious and low in calories. They're also very low in digestible carbs, which raise your blood sugar levels.

Spinach, kale and other leafy greens are good sources of several vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C.

Green leafy vegetables are good sources of the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin.

These antioxidants protect your eyes from macular degeneration and cataracts, which are common diabetes complications.

BOTTOM LINE: Green leafy vegetables are rich in nutrients and antioxidants that protect your heart and eye health.

3. Cinnamon

Cinnamon is a delicious spice with potent antioxidant activity. cinnamon can lower blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity.

Type 2 diabetes patients who took cinnamon for 90 days had more than a double reduction in hemoglobin A1c. cinnamon may also lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

BOTTOM LINE: Cinnamon may improve blood sugar control, insulin sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in type 2 diabetics.

4. Eggs

Eggs provide amazing health benefits. They're one of the best foods for keeping you full for hours.Regular egg consumption may also reduce your heart disease risk in several ways.

Eggs decrease inflammation, improve insulin sensitivity, increase your "good" HDL cholesterol levels and modify the size and shape of your "bad" LDL cholesterol.people with type 2 diabetes who consumed 2 eggs daily as part of a high-protein diet had improvements in cholesterol and blood sugar levels.Eggs are one of the best sources of lutein and zeaxanthin, antioxidants that protect the eyes from diseases.

BOTTOM LINE: Eggs improve risk factors for heart disease, promote good blood sugar control, protect eye health and keep you feeling full.

5. Turmeric

Turmeric is a spice with powerful health benefits.Its active ingredient, curcumin, can lower inflammation and blood sugar levels, while reducing heart disease risk.

BOTTOM LINE: Turmeric contains curcumin, which may reduce blood sugar levels and inflammation, while protecting against heart and kidney disease.

6. Greek Yogurt

Greek yogurt is a great dairy choice for diabetics.It's been shown to improve blood sugar control and reduce heart disease risks.yogurt may lead to weight loss and improved body composition in people with type 2 diabetes.

Greek yogurt contains only 6–8 grams of carbs per serving, which is lower than conventional yogurt. It's also higher in protein, which promotes weight loss by reducing appetite and decreasing calorie intake.

BOTTOM LINE: Greek yogurt promotes healthy blood sugar levels, reduces risk factors for heart disease and may help with weight management.

7. Nuts

Nuts are delicious and nutritious. All types of nuts contain fiber and are low in digestible carbs, although some have more than others.

Regular consumption variety of different nuts may reduce inflammation and lower blood sugar, HbA1c and LDL levels. People with diabetes who include nuts in their diet, have good HDL levels.

This is important because people with type 2 diabetes often have elevated levels of insulin and LDL which are linked to obesity.

BOTTOM LINE: Nuts are a healthy addition to a diabetic diet. They're low in digestible carbs and help reduce blood sugar, insulin and LDL levels.

8. Broccoli

Broccoli is one of the most nutritious vegetables around. Half cup of cooked broccoli contains only 27 calories and 3 grams of digestible carbs, along with important nutrients like vitamin C and magnesium.broccoli may help lower insulin levels and protect cells from harmful free radicals. Broccoli is another good source of lutein and zeaxanthin. These important antioxidants help prevent eye diseases.

BOTTOM LINE: Broccoli is a low-calorie, low-carb food with high nutrient value. It is loaded with healthy plant compounds that can protect against various diseases.

9. Extra-Virgin Olive Oil

Extra-virgin olive oil is extremely beneficial for heart health. It contains oleic acid, a type of monounsaturated fat that has been shown to improve triglycerides and HDL, which are often at unhealthy levels in type 2 diabetes. Olive oil reduces heart disease risks.

Olive oil also contains antioxidants called polyphenols. They reduce inflammation, protect the cells lining your blood vessels, keep your LDL cholesterol from becoming damaged by oxidation and decrease blood pressure.

Extra-virgin olive oil is unrefined and retains the antioxidants and other properties that make it so healthy. Be sure to choose extra-virgin olive oil from a reputable source, since many olive oils are mixed with cheaper oils.

BOTTOM LINE: Extra-virgin olive oil contains healthy oleic acid. It has benefits for blood pressure and heart health.

10. Flaxseeds

Flaxseeds are an incredibly healthy food.

A portion of their insoluble fiber is made up of lignans, which can decrease heart disease risk and improve blood sugar control.people with type 2 diabetes who take flaxseed  in their diet, improve in hemoglobin A1c levels.Flaxseeds are very high in viscous fiber, which improves gut health, insulin sensitivity and feelings of fullness.

BOTTOM LINE:Flaxseeds may reduce inflammation, lower heart disease risk, decrease blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity.

11. Jamun Vinegar

Jamun vinegar has many health benefits. As it's made from Jamun, is super fruit for diabetics. Jamun vinegar improve insulin sensitivity and lower fasting blood sugar levels. It may also reduce blood sugar response by as much as 20% when consumed with meals containing carbs.

You can add Jamun vinegar with 1 teaspoon mixed in a glass of water each day. Increase to a maximum of 2 tablespoons per day.

BOTTOM LINE: Jamun vinegar can improve insulin sensitivity and lower blood sugar levels. It may also help you feel full for longer.

12. Strawberries

Strawberries are one of the most nutritious fruits you can eat.They're high in antioxidants known as anthocyanins, which give them their red color.they reduce cholesterol and insulin levels after a meal. They also improve blood sugar and heart disease risk factors in type 2 diabetes.

BOTTOM LINE:Strawberries are low-sugar fruits that have strong anti-inflammatory properties and may help reduce heart disease risk.

13. Garlic

Garlic is a delicious herb with impressive health benefits.it can reduce inflammation, blood sugar and LDL cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes.It may also be very effective at reducing blood pressure.

BOTTOM LINE: Garlic helps lower blood sugar, inflammation, LDL cholesterol and blood pressure in people with diabetes.

Some Home remedies for control Sugar levels

1. Consume about one teaspoon of fenugreek powder (methi dana powder) with lukewarm water early morning before you start your day. Fenugreek seeds are famous for their ability to lower blood sugar in people with diabetes. They contain fiber and help in slowing the digestion process and thus regulates the absorption of carbohydrates and sugar. They also help in improving the way the body uses sugar.

2. Make a concoction of fenugreek powder, jamunseedpowder, neempowder and karela powder, all in equal proportions. Consume about 1 teaspoon of this mix, half an hour before lunch and dinner along with water.

3. Soak 8-10 flowers of Paneer Doda  in a glass of water overnight. Filter the water and have it in the morning. Also known as Paneer ka Phool, Paneer Doda is a popular Indian flower known for its medicinal uses. It helps in utilizing the blood glucose effectively.

4. Take two teaspoons of amla juice with a pinch turmeric powder early morning. Amla is the fruit of the Indian gooseberry tree and is a traditional remedy to control high blood sugar levels.

5. Drink a glass of juice made with 1/2 bitter gourd, 1/2 cucumber, 2 celery stalk and 1/2 green apple. You should have this once a day.

Karela or bitter gourd is one of the best foods for diabetics.

6. Have one teaspoon of powdered Gurmar leaves along with water half an hour after lunch and dinner. Gurmar is an Ayurvedic herb which is known to regulate the absorption of carbohydrates in the body.

About The Author

Nitu Pal

Nitu Pal is a nutritionist. She runs her own clinic in Bhopal. She is an expert in kids’ nutrition, cardiac issues pregnancy, diabetes, thyroid, PCOS and liver issues. She.... Read More..

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